Climate Change has become a thing of concern for farmers and those in the agriculture industry. Individuals and families seem unbothered about this global issue without bearing in mind that if nothing is done to resolve climate change, the world could experience food insecurity, hike in prices of all agricultural produces and an eventual period of scarcity. Climate change refers to a significant change in global temperature, wind patterns and other measures of climates that occur over several decades and are usually caused by human activities that emit excess carbon dioxide and other Greenhouse Gases (GHG) into the Earth’s atmosphere. Climate change can affect food production in several ways including the following:
Even as humans, we are affected by severe weather conditions talk less of plants and animals that are more sensitive than we are. Extreme high temperature can lead to an increase in pest and diseases in animals as well as decrease their fertility rate.
Plants need the supply of water in moderate quantities i.e. not in excess and not too small. However, extreme weather conditions like drought, and massive increase in rainfall can drastically affect agriculture and lead to the poor growth of crops. Excessive rainfall usually causes soil erosion, rise in sea levels which could make plants absorb more salt content. In addition, during periods of drought, animals get dehydrated frequently and do not have enough hygienic water to consume which leads to their death in some cases and extinction of many plant and animal species.
Plants need Carbon Dioxide to grow and through the pores on their leaves they are able to produce enough water to regulate their temperature as well as that of their immediate environment. Climate Change is leading to the emission of more carbon dioxide and when it is circulated in excess, it reduces the amount of water leaves are able to produce due to the shrinking of their pores. It is noteworthy that the same way plants flourish with adequate carbon dioxide, weeds also experience a tremendous growth making them be in competition with plants and absorb the soil nutrients needed by those plants. These weeds will also give farmers more work to do as they will be faced with consistent weeding of the farmland.
When speaking about matters concerning climate change and global warming, no nation is safe and none is excepted from the discussion. If no measures are put in place to ensure the continual survival of plant and animal species in their natural habitat, the world might experience starvation and high poverty rate. Farmers can employ some adaptation techniques to ensure the continuous production and availability of food crops and livestock regardless of the changes in climate. The establishment of more water infrastructure should be considered as well as a sustainable drainage system to reduce soil erosion, loss of nutrient and prevent stagnant water where germs and pests can breed. Engaging in farming systems like crop rotation, cover crops and using other land management techniques, it is believed that climate change will have a reduced effect on agriculture.